Watch the watchers when using AngularJS

The last couple of months we have been improving and porting our library search interface frontend to AngularJS. However great Angular’s two-way bindings are they can greatly impact performance and lately I have been looking into how we use them in the beta version of our search front end which is our first big AngularJS web app.

In this process I used the Batarang debug tool in Chrome to see what was going on in terms of registered watchers and performance and it quickly pointed out two potential problems.

1. Our translation plugin generates tons of watchers

[NOTE (2014-06-17): section below is outdated as it applied to angular-translate v. 1.1.0. The current version (2.2.0) supports unregistering of watchers out of the box when ‘translate’ is used as a directive]

First of it was noticeable that a large chunk of the registered watchers where attached to our translation plugin Angular-translate. Every time we use the translate directive a watcher is attached and with hundreds of bits of translated text on a page the watcher count quickly climbs. This behavior is per design as it is possible to change the language run-time. In our case we do a page refresh when the language is toggled and very few labels are toggled run-time so this seemed like a good place to optimize.

As the current version of Angular-translate does not have native support for unregistering watchers I looked at solutions like Bindonce.

Bindonce provides a set of attributes that allows the initial binding and after that your variable is “dead” and will not update on model change. Initial testing in Batarang with the Bindonce approach of course showed a significant decrease of watchers and thereby an increase in performance and best of all the app visually behaved exactly the same as before. Only drawback with the Bindonce plugin is that the templates need to be rewritten and the new code is not as clean is the old.
An example of the current approach (translate used as directive):

<div translate=’TRANSLATION.KEY’></div>

New Bindonce approach (translate used as filter):

<div bindonce bo-text=” ’TRANSLATION.KEY’ | translate ”></div>

Although this solves the performance issues we have with the translate module I would rather see a ‘stop watching’ functionality built into the plugin. Fortunately a lot of work is currently being put into this issue and it seems that the next release of angular-translate (1.2.0) will address this.

2. Unnecessary use of Angular watchers
Next performance issue related to watchers was our use of databindings in templates. Every Time you write {{foo}} you create a two-way binding in AngularJS and ‘foo’ is therefore watched. This is of course one of the core functionalities of the framework but you need to be aware that the watchers come with a performance penalty especially when the number of watchers grow. Every time $apply is called directly or implicitly it will force a $digest cycle and the watch-expressions are evaluated.

In our app the Batarang tool revealed that besides the translation issues a lot of watchers were registered to links in our faceting functionality. Every facet contains a link where the href is generated in the following way in the template:

<a href=’{{searchURL}}?query={{query}}{{currentFilter}}&filter={{facet.facetname}}:{{}}’>{{foo}}</a>

Each link has several data-bindings through {{}} and we have a lot of these links on the page. That is a lot of watchers. As these links do not change unless the template is run again they do not need to be watched and there would be a performance gain by creating these links without the watcher overhead. One way to do it would be to use a directive instead to generate the href:
In template:

<a href=”” facet>{{foo}}</a>


.directive(‘facet’, [ function() {
return {
link: function(scope, elem, attr) {
var  href = /**Do your magic here**/
attr.$set(‘href’, href);
} }

This significantly cuts down the amount of watcher expressions.

Another way around it would be to utilise the Bindonce plugin and do something like this:

<a bindonce bo-href=”searchURL + ‘?query=’ + query + currentFilter + ‘&filter=’ + facet.facetname + ‘:’ +“>{{foo}}</a>

This will give you zero watchers attached to the link. Not a particularly clean solution but a very nice and “free” performance enhancement as the watchers aren’t needed in this case. We could even optimize further by getting rid of the {{foo}} watcher by converting it to a Bindonce text attribute:

<a bindonce bo-href=”searchURL + ‘?query=’ + query + currentFilter + ‘&filter=’ + facet.facetname + ‘:’ +“ bo-text=”foo”></a>

As we dig deeper in the app I’m sure that even more unused watchers will turn up and be dealt with.

I know that there will be other even smarter approaches to the above examples, other plugins you can use to deal with watchers or you could even brew your own directives to handle it but the main point remains intact. Watch the watches and this also means investigating what your plugins are up to. Batarang is a good tool for this. Especially as a novice in AngularJS you have to consider how and when to use the powerful two-way binding options. Don’t be afraid of them just use with care. Don’t let them pile up and only use them when required. If used excessively it can ruin performance and render your Angular app very sluggish on less powerful clients. Here we are certainly learning this the hard way as we build our first large Angular app.

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4 Responses to Watch the watchers when using AngularJS

  1. Hey, great post! Meanwhile, angular-translate *does* support unregistering watches as long as you use `translate` directive. So make sure to check it out! 🙂

  2. Jørn Thøgersen says:

    Thank you for your comment and major thanks for angular-translate! We are using it and it’s great.

    Your are right that the newest version, which we of course are using, supports unregistering when you use it as a directive. When a wrote this post we used v1.1.1 which did not support this. Unfortunately I forgot to reference the version number in the post.

    I will update the post to avoid confusion.

    Angular-translate version 2.x.x has done wonders for our performance – keep up the good work!

  3. Baker Humadi says:

    I was able to use one-time binding without any library like bind-once

    {{:: ‘play’ | translate }}

    I hope this helps others. It took me hours to find this solution

  4. Jørn Thøgersen says:

    Thanks for your comment Baker. Four years have past since I wrote this post and in those four years Angular has come a long way (it even changed it’s name from AngularJS to Angular along the way). As you have discovered one-time binding is now a built in feature. Sorry it took you so long to track this down but it is described in the official documentation (AngurlarJS – When possible we always use one-time binding and in fact that is most of the time in our largest AngularJS single page web app. Happy coding!

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